Preeclampsia as a risk factor for the development of retinopathy of premature

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Abstract

In a review of the literature, maternal preeclampsia has been considered a risk factor for the development and severity of retinopathy of prematurity (RP). Preeclampsia is a complication that occurs in the second half of pregnancy (after 20 weeks), and it is diagnosed when arterial hypertension first appears (BP ≥140/90 mm Hg), proteinuria (≥0.3 g/L in daily urine), edema (not always), multiple organ/multisystem dysfunction/insufficiency, which are based on the dysfunction of the vascular endothelium. ROP remains a potentially vision-threatening condition that requires careful monitoring and timely intervention to prevent the progression of adverse visual impairment or blindness. RP initially presents with delayed physiological retinal vascular development, which is followed by pathological vasoproliferation; this condition is highly correlated with extreme prematurity and poor postnatal growth. This article discusses the possible mechanisms of influence of maternal preeclampsia on the development and severity of ROP in premature babies. A special role is attributed to circulating antiangiogenic factors in the preeclamptic maternal environment, which can influence the development of fetal retinal vessels and predispose premature infants to ROP. Рreeclampsia increases the risk and severity of preterm birth, which are closely related to the risk of ROP. These results are contradictory, as some authors consider preeclampsia as a risk factor for the development of ROP, while others have not yet identified any connection between these processes. However, several authors consider preeclampsia as a protective factor in relation to the development of ROP. Dysregulation of circulating angiogenic factors plays an important role in the pathogenesis of both preeclampsia and ROP. Preeclampsia should therefore be studied further and considered along with other risk factors for ROP.

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About the authors

Svetlana I. Makogon

Altai Regional Ophthalmological Hospital; Altai State Medical University

Author for correspondence.
Email: vvk_msi@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3943-1188
SPIN-code: 4809-7546

MD, Dr. Sci. (Med.)

Russian Federation, Barnaul; Barnaul

Natalya V. Gorbacheva

Altai Regional Ophthalmological Hospital; Altai State Medical University

Email: vvk_msi@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5586-9796

MD, Ophthalmologist

Russian Federation, Barnaul; Barnaul

Yulia S. Khlopkova

Altai State Medical University

Email: vvk_msi@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7615-2057

MD, Ophthalmologist

Russian Federation, Barnaul

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