Regional factors of somatic pathologies in pregnant women and predelivery risk factors for retinopathy in premature infants of the Altai region

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Abstract

Despite progress in medicine, the number of preterm births as a result of the use of new reproductive technologies is increasing. Preterm birth is a multifactorial process. The success of neonatal resuscitation in nursing children with extremely low birth weight leads to an increase in the number of surviving children with various ophthalmic pathologies. Retinopathy in premature infants remains one of the urgent problems of pediatric ophthalmology, being one of the leading causes of blindness and low vision in preterm neonates. Premature retinopathy is a multifactorial disease, the incidence and severity of which are due to the influence of many risk factors that adversely affect the immature retina of a premature infant and lead to a violation of its normal vasculogenesis.

Aim. To evaluate the state of health of pregnant women and the connection of this factor with the development of retinopathy among retinopathy prematurity in the Altai Region.

Material and methods. To achieve this aim, statistical compendiums of the Demographic Yearbook in the Altai Region over an 11-year period (from 2005 to 2016) were analyzed, as were the medical histories of infants hospitalized in
“The Altai Regional Clinical Children’s Hospital” during the same period.

Results. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) in the incidence of hepatitis and diabetes were discovered. In addition, the most apparent variations, confirming the existence of prenatal risk factors leading to retinopathy in premature infants, were obtained on such indicators as anemia among pregnant women, fetoplacental deficiency, gestational toxicosis, pyelonephritis among pregnant women, and others.

Сonclusions. We detected a significant number of somatic pathologies in pregnant women in the Altai Region, which was considerably higher than the average rates in the Russian Federation. The most remarkable antenatal risk factors for the birth of premature babies developing retinopathy of the premature were highlighted, and these should be taken into account when organizing prophylactic screening measures for the early identification of retinopathy of prematurity in the Altai Region.

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About the authors

Vladimir I. Lebedev

Altay State Medical University

Author for correspondence.
Email: sibvil@bk.ru

MD, assistant, Head of Department, Chief Non-resident Specialist - Pediatric Ophthalmologist

Russian Federation, 656038, Barnaul, Russian Federation

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