Somatic state assessment of the health of patients with retinoblastoma in a long-term follow-up

Cover Page

Cite item

Full Text

Open Access Open Access
Restricted Access Access granted
Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access


AIM: To comprehensively assess the incidence and nature of the chronic diseases in patients with retinoblastoma in the long-term follow-up

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study analyzed the long-term treatment results of 176 patients with retinoblastoma. Group 1 included 46 patients aged <18 years and Group 2 included 88 patients aged >18 and <35 years. A gynecologist and a urologist were consulted, a medical history was taken, and a physical examination with emphasis on the presence of secondary sexual characteristics and laboratory tests were performed to assess the endocrine function in surviving patients aged <18 years. Anamnestic data were used in patients aged >18 years.

RESULTS: The somatic status data analysis of 46 surviving adolescents revealed that 29 (63%) have abnormalities. Chronic gastritis and gastroduodenitis, biliary dyskinesia, fatty hepatosis, and lactase deficiency predominate in gastrointestinal structure diseases. Respiratory diseases are represented by chronic nasopharyngeal diseases in 13.0% of children. Secondary immunodeficiency condition was diagnosed in 3 (6.5%) patients. Musculoskeletal system and connective tissue pathologies in deforming dorsopathies were identified in 10.9% of cases and bone and joint pain were identified in 8.7%. Chronic conditions were found in 42 (47.7%) of 88 patients in Group 2. Somatic disorders were found in 95.2%, hormonal disorders in 11.9%, psycho-emotional disorders in 9.5%, and combined pathology in 9.5% of cases. Endocrine pathology was detected in 14 patients (30.4%) aged <18 years.

CONCLUSION: Retinoblastoma survivors have a high risk of somatic and endocrine disorders. The main risk factors are distance radiation therapy and alkylating agents. Regular lifelong follow-up of these patients is necessary to establish a medical rehabilitation system for children with retinoblastoma.

Full Text

Restricted Access

About the authors

Svetlana V. Saakyan

Helmholtz National Medical Research Center of Eye Diseases; Moscow State Medical and Dental University

ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8591-428X
SPIN-code: 4783-9193

MD, Dr of Med. Sci, Professor

Russian Federation, 14/19, Sadovaya Chernogryazskaya Street, Moscow, 105062; Moscow

Olga A. Ivanova

Helmholtz National Medical Research Center of Eye Diseases

Author for correspondence.
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0089-0328
SPIN-code: 8332-3661


Russian Federation, 14/19, Sadovaya Chernogryazskaya Street, Moscow, 105062

Syuzanna S. Revishvili

Helmholtz National Medical Research Center of Eye Diseases

ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9098-5912


Russian Federation, 14/19, Sadovaya Chernogryazskaya Street, Moscow, 105062

Alexander I. Tsygankov

Helmholtz National Medical Research Center of Eye Diseases; Moscow State Medical and Dental University

ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9475-3545
SPIN-code: 6476-4740

MD, PhD, researcher at ocular oncology and radiology department

Russian Federation, 14/19, Sadovaya Chernogryazskaya Street, Moscow, 105062; Moscow


  1. Saakjan SV, Tadevosjan SS, Cygankov AJ. Analysis of retinoblastoma incidence in children. Rossijskaja pediatricheskaja oftal’mologija. 2020; 15(4): 5–10. (In Russ). doi: 10.17816/rpo2020-15-4-5-10
  2. Diller L, Chow EJ, Gurney JG, et al. Chronic disease in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study cohort: a review of published findings. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27(14):2339–2355. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2008.21.1953
  3. Geenen MM, Cardous-Ubbink MC, Kremer LC, et al. Medical assessment of adverse health outcomes in long-term survivors of childhood cancer. JAMA. 2007;297(24):2705–2715. doi: 10.1001/jama.297.24.2705
  4. Hudson MM, Ness KK, Gurney JG, et al. Clinical ascertainment of health outcomes among adults treated for childhood cancer. JAMA. 2013;309(22):2371–2381. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.6296
  5. Hudson MM, Mulrooney DA, Bowers DC, et al. High-risk populations identified in Childhood Cancer Survivor Study investigations: implications for risk-based surveillance. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27(14):2405–2414. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2008.21.1516
  6. Mertens AC, Liu Q, Neglia JP, et al. Cause-specific late mortality among 5-year survivors of childhood cancer: the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008;100(19):1368–1379. doi: 10.1093/jnci/djn310
  7. Oeffinger KC, Mertens AC, Sklar CA, et al. Chronic health conditions in adult survivors of childhood cancer. N Engl J Med. 2006;355(15):1572–1582. doi: 10.1056/NEJMsa060185
  8. Robison LL, Mertens AC, Boice JD, et al. Study design and cohort characteristics of the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study: a multi-institutional collaborative project. Med Pediatr Oncol. 2002;38(4):229–239. doi: 10.1002/mpo.1316
  9. Tkachenko IV, Teslenko BV, Rogacheva ER, et al. Health status of children treated for oncohematological diseases. Voprosy prakticheskoj pediatrii. 2009; 4(5): 22–27 (In Russ).
  10. Radulesku GG, Matchenkova NV, Belogurova MB. The endocrinological complications in children after anticancer treatment. Pediatr. 2016;7(1):120–128. (In Russ). doi: 10.17816/PED71120-128
  11. Petrushkina AA, Pigarova EA, Rozhinskaja LY. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Russian Federation. Osteoporoz i osteopatii. 2018;21(3):15–20. (In Russ). doi: 10.14341/osteo10038
  12. Burluckaja AV, Shadrin SA, Statova AV. Endocrine pathology in adolescents in Krasnodar. Mezhdunarodnyj nauchno-issledovatel’skij zhurnal. 2016;11(53):130–134. (In Russ). doi: 10.18454/IRJ.2016.53.197
  13. Friedman DN, Chou JF, Oeffinger KC, et al. Chronic medical conditions in adult survivors of retinoblastoma: Results of the Retinoblastoma Survivor Study. Cancer. 2016;122(5):773–781. doi: 10.1002/cncr.29704
  14. Seth R, Singh A, Guru V, et al. Long-term follow-up of retinoblastoma survivors: Experience from India. South Asian J Cancer. 2017;6(4):176–179. doi: 10.4103/sajc.sajc_179_16
  15. Schundeln MM, Hauffa PK, Bauer JJ, et al. Pediatric Survivors of Retinoblastoma Are at Risk for Altered Bone Metabolism After Chemotherapy Treatment Early in Life. Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2015;32(7):455–466. doi: 10.3109/08880018.2015.1048912
  16. Peylan-Ramu N, Bin-Nun A, Skleir-Levy M, et al. Orbital growth retardation in retinoblastoma survivors: work in progress. Med Pediatr Oncol. 2001;37(5):465–470. doi: 10.1002/mpo.1231
  17. Nahum MP, Gdal-On M, Kuten A, et al. Long-term follow-up of children with retinoblastoma. Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2001;18(3):173–179. doi: 10.1080/08880010151114769

Supplementary files

Supplementary Files
1. Fig. Chronic conditions in patients over 18 years of age.

Download (96KB)

Copyright (c) 2021 Eco-Vector

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies