Structure of corneal opacities in children in a specialized hospital practice

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AIM: To evaluate the nosological structure of various etiologies in a specialized pediatric ophthalmosurgical center for 5 years (from 2016 to 2020)

MATERIAL AND METHODS: This prospective study was conducted at the Department of Eye Pathology in Children of the Helmholtz Moscow Research Institute of Eye Diseases from January 01, 2016, to December 31, 2020, and collected and summarized clinical observations in children with corneal opacity (CO) of various etiologies. Statistical annual reports and case histories of children who were hospitalized in the pediatric surgical department were analyzed. The analysis of discharge epicrisis was conducted only in children with corneal changes of various natures.

RESULTS: The proportion of children with corneal opacities from 2016 to 2020 was 13.5% (954 children out of 7066 hospitalized). Secondary CO was determined in most cases and amounted to 75.2%. The leading nosologies were congenital corneal opacities (24.8%), post-traumatic changes (33.6%), and post-inflammatory corneal degenerations (37.1%). Penetrating keratoplasty was more often performed in congenital pathology (55.8%), and scarification was more often used in the group of children with postuveal CO (96.3%).

CONCLUSION: Corneal opacities in children have a significant role in the overall structure of the visual organ pathology in children and have a large polymorphism. CO was secondary in the vast majority of children. Therefore, methods of CO prevention were searched. The general nosological structure did not undergo significant fluctuations throughout the study period.

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Indira R. Mamakaeva

Helmholtz National Medical Research Center of Eye Diseases

Author for correspondence.
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0874-6504

MD, PhD, Researcher

Russian Federation, 14/19, Sadovaya-Chernogriazskaya street, Moscow, 105062

Alla V. Pleskova

Helmholtz National Medical Research Center of Eye Diseases

ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4458-4605

MD, Dr. Med. Sciences

Russian Federation, 14/19, Sadovaya-Chernogriazskaya street, Moscow, 105062

Lyudmila A. Katargina

Helmholtz National Medical Research Center of Eye Diseases

ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4857-0374

MD, Dr. Med. Sciences, Professor

Russian Federation, 14/19, Sadovaya-Chernogriazskaya street, Moscow, 105062


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