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Vol 16, No 3 (2021)

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Original study article

Application of vessel endothelium growth factor inhibitor ranibizumab in complex therapy of retinopathy of prematurity

Kariakin M.A., Stepanova E.A., Korotkikh S.A., Timofeeva N.S., Surtaev S.I.


AIM: To conduct a retrospective study of the application of vessel endothelium growth factor inhibitor ranibizumab in complex therapy of retinopathy of prematurity in Ural State children`s ophthalmological center at State Autonomic Health Institution of the Sverdlovsk Region Multiprofile Clinical Medical Center «BONUM» in Yekaterinburg.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 17 patients (33 eyes). The gestation age was from 23 to 30 weeks (mean: 26.5±1.7 weeks), birth weight was from 600 to 1850 g (mean: 867±229 g). 8 patients (47%) had APROP, and 9 patients (53%) had ROP stage III, type 1, “plus disease.” Laser coagulation of the avascular areas of the retina as the start in ROP therapy was performed in three patients with APROP (4 eyes, 12.1%). Intravitreal injection of the anti-VEGF ranibizumab was performed in 17 patients (33 eyes), including patients with previous laser coagulation. The age of the patients at the time of injection was from 7.7 to 15.6 weeks (10.5±1.9 weeks), PCA from 32.3 to 39.6 weeks (37.0±1.8 weeks). Patients with stage IVa ROP (5 patients, 6 eyes) underwent 25G or 27G lens sparing vitrectomy.

RESULTS: As a result of the complex treatment of ROP, the following results were obtained: complete regression in 13 patients (28 eyes, 84.8%). Partial regression in two patients (2 eyes, 6.1%). ROP progression to stage V in two patients (3 eyes, 9.1%).

CONCLUSION: Complex treatment of severe stages of active ROP with laser treatment, IVI injections, ranibizumab, and vitrectomy made it possible to preserve vision in 90.9% of patients.

Russian Pediatric Ophthalmology. 2021;16(3):5-10
pages 5-10 views

Comparison of biometric methods in young children with congenital cataracts in their eyes

Kruglova T.B., Kiseleva T.N., Katargina L.A., Egiyan N.S., Mamykina A.S., Kalinichenko R.V., Lugovkina K.V., Bedretdinov A.N., Zajtsev M.S., Ramazanova K.A.


BACKGROUND: Relevant keratometric and biometric indicators are necessary for intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation, which is difficult to verify in young children.

AIM: Evaluation of the accuracy of various ultrasound methods and optical biometry for axial length measurement in young children with congenital cataracts.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-six children (74 eyes) with congenital cataracts (43 eyes) and pseudophakia (31 eyes) at the age of 6 months to 4 years were examined. Various methods measured the axial length: ultrasound A-scan under general anesthesia by US-4000, ultrasound B-scan without general anesthesia by Voluson E8, and optical biometry by AL-Scan in cases of transparent optics.

RESULTS: The greater axial length difference was observed between A-scan and optical biometry (less by 0,78 mm) than between B-scan and optical biometry (more by 0,27 mm). The median axial length difference between A-scan and B-scan was equal for infants and young children with congenital cataracts (0,525 mm and 0,535 mm, respectively).

CONCLUSION: Axial length should be measured by different methods in young children with their further comparison to obtaining more accurate biometric indicators for IOL power calculation. The decrease of 1–2 mm in axial length, which occurs during the A-scan, can lead to errors in the IOL calculation of 3–6 diopters and unplanned refraction in the long-term period.

Russian Pediatric Ophthalmology. 2021;16(3):11-18
pages 11-18 views

Treatment outcomes of central retinopathy of prematurity with localization in the Moscow regional perinatal center

Panova A.Y., Petrova A.S., Trusova S.A., Shevernaya O.A.


BACKGROUND: Ranibizumab is widely used in retinopathy of prematurity. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness, the risk of complications, and recurrence of the disease by antiangiogenic therapy.

AIM: To demonstrate the experience of using anti-VEGF drugs in the Moscow Regional Perinatal Center and the effectiveness of different approaches to retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) treatment in the central retinal zone.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The case histories of 17 deeply premature infants with threshold ROP stages and localization in the posterior pole were retrospectively analyzed. Children were treated with intravitreal VEGF inhibitor (total 9 children), 5 children underwent laser coagulation of the retina, and 3 children received combined treatment (laser and intravitreal administration of a VEGF inhibitor).

RESULTS: The average age of development of threshold stages was 35.2 weeks (range: 30.5–39 weeks) in our study. The frequency of promising outcomes after using anti-VEGF drugs alone or in conjunction with peripheral laser treatment was 100%. In comparison, the only laser treatment generated a promising result in 70% of the eyes. However, ROP relapses after anti-VEGF therapy developed at 37, 43, 44,5 weeks. In addition, 1 out of 9 children developed a recurrence of ROP and required laser treatment 7 weeks after using anti-VEGF.

CONCLUSION: The use of anti-VEGF therapy is an effective method for the treatment of ROP of the posterior pole. However, there is the ambiguity of the available recommendations on the further management of children. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the children who have received antiangiogenic therapy for as long as possible.

Russian Pediatric Ophthalmology. 2021;16(3):19-26
pages 19-26 views

Comparative study of objective and subjective parameters of accommodation in children with myopia

Tarutta E.P., Tarasova N.A., Iomdina E.N., Milash S.V., Markosyan G.A.


AIM: The study aims to compare the results of objective parameters such as autorefractometers of the open field Grand Seiko and closed field TONOREF III. and the subjective parameters such as the positive of relative accommodation (PRA) and the amplitude of accommodation (AA).

MATERIAL AND METHODS: 30 children (60 eyes) with low and moderate myopia (on average -2.96 ± 0.17 D) aged from 8 to 12 years (on average 10.04 ± 0.24 years) were examined. Subjective (PRA, AA) and objective parameters of binocular adaptation (BAO) and monocular adaptation (MAO) response on the Grand Seiko Binocular Open Field Autorefkeratometer WR - 5500K (Japan) and the AA on the automatic refractokeratotonometer pakhimetre TONOREF III (Nidek, Japan) were determined.

RESULTS: The average of BAO and MAO at 33 cm was -1.93 ± 0.04 D and 1.86 ± 0.05 D, respectively. The average PRA was 1.5 ± 0.16 D. The objectively measured average AA was 5.25 ± 0.4 D. The average minimum AA value was -2.86 ± 0.16 D, and the average maximum value was 8.11 ± 0.46 D. The subjective AA on the “Iksar” device was on average 4.17 ± 0.43 D; Amin, on average -3.77 ± 0.26 D; Amax, on average was -7.94 ± 0.59 D.

CONCLUSION: The objective and subjective measurements of AA produced comparable results. BAO and MAO reflected other characteristics of accommodation, different from its amplitude, and characterized the adequacy of the accommodation response to a specific accommodation task. The advantage of objective accommodation is that it is independent of the patient’s responses and intellectual level.

Russian Pediatric Ophthalmology. 2021;16(3):27-35
pages 27-35 views

Case reports

A case of congenital glaucoma in type I neurofibromatosis

Pleskova A.V., Lugovkina K.V., Panova A.Y., Sorokin A.A.


BACKGROUND: Recklinghausen’s generalized neurofibromatosis (NF) is a hereditary disease characterized by the formation of benign tumors from the nervous tissue that provokes skin and bone changes of various types. Often, involvement in the pathological process and the organ of vision. The variability of eye lesions in NF-I type is known according to the clinical course, severity, and clinical forms. Gliomas and atrophy of the optic nerves, neurofibromas in the iris, sclera, conjunctiva, eyelids, less often — glaucoma, buphthalmos, orbital osteodystrophy are described.

RESULTS: The article describes a rare case of type I neurofibromatosis, the first clinical manifestation of congenital glaucoma. Modern complex ophthalmological examination made it possible to identify the cause and clarify the nature of the development of glaucoma.

CONCLUSION: The need for an interdisciplinary approach to the diagnosis, dispensary observation, and treatment of NF-I is emphasized.

Russian Pediatric Ophthalmology. 2021;16(3):37-42
pages 37-42 views

Clinical recommendations

Bacterial corneal ulcers in pediatric patients. Algorithms of pharmacotherapy. Part II

Kovaleva L.A.


Part I of the article presents a review of publications highlighting current exogenous and endogenous risk factors contributing to the occurrence of bacterial corneal ulcers, laboratory diagnostic methods, clinical differential diagnostic features of bacterial corneal ulcers.

A wide variety of objective symptoms characterizes the clinical picture of bacterial corneal ulcers. Still, objective differential diagnostic signs make it possible with a high degree of probability to assume the etiology of the disease during the first biomicroscopy and immediately begin etiotropic therapy, on the timing of which the outcome of the disease depends.

Standard laboratory examination of patients with bacterial corneal ulcers includes the bacterioscopic and cultural examination of the contents of the conjunctival sac. However, the absence of etiotropic therapy while waiting for the results of microbiological research methods, which takes from 3 to 7 days, contributes to the rapid progression of the disease, the development of endophthalmitis, and corneal perforation, up to the loss of an eye in children. In this regard, treatment must be started immediately. Therefore, the choice of a drug is determined not only by the causative agent, proven laboratory but, first of all, based on clinical differential diagnostic signs of the disease.

The traditional, undeniable approach to the conservative treatment of bacterial corneal ulcers is conventional etiotropic therapy using local and systemic antibacterial drugs. In addition, timely intensive specific drug therapy prevents the destruction of all layers of the cornea, and the use of metabolic drugs that improve regeneration and trophism promotes epithelialization of corneal ulcers.

Attention should be given to the necessity and validity of the choice of antibacterial drugs for various etiological forms of bacterial corneal ulcers in children. An individual approach is a basis for effective antibiotic therapy in pediatric ophthalmology.

The article presents an up-to-date review of publications and modern algorithms for treating bacterial corneal ulcers in children, the main causative agents of which are: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

Russian Pediatric Ophthalmology. 2021;16(3):43-48
pages 43-48 views

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