Russian Pediatric Ophthalmology

Peer-review quarterly academic medical journal. 

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About

The journal founded in 2006 is intended for ophtalmologists, healthcare professionals, drug developers and regulators, researchers of scientific, medical and educational organizations

The aim of the journal is to provide pediatric ophthalmologists with data on pediatric ophthalmology issues, to enable exchange of experience in diagnosing and treating ocular diseases in children, to facilitate discussion of research results, and to improve pediatric eye care.

The reader will find on the pages of the journal reviews, lectures and original articles that have priority and deserve to be published in the professional medical journal.

APC, Publication & Distribution

  • Quarterly issues (4 times a year)
  • Continuoulsly publications online (Online First)
  • Hybrid Access (Open Access articles published with CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 License)
  • articles in English & Russian

 

Articles types

  • reviews
  • systematic reviews and metaanalyses
  • original research articles
  • clinical case reports and series
  • letters to the editor
  • short communications
  • clinial practice guidelines

Indexation

  • Russian Science Citation Index (eLibrary.ru)
  • CrossRef
  • Google Scholar
  • Ulrich’s International Periodicals Directory
  • WorldCat

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Current Issue

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Vol 17, No 4 (2022)

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Original study article

Morphometric and functional features in children with pseudophakic myopia after congenital cataract extraction in infancy
Galkina A.S., Katargina L.A., Kruglova T.B., Egiyan N.S.
Abstract

AIM: To investigate the morphometric parameters of the macular zone in children with pseudophakia and different refractive states after congenital cataract extraction in infancy and their correlations with vision parameters.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty children (49 eyes) who underwent bilateral cataract surgery with primary intraocular lens (IOL) implantation, with a median age at surgery of 7.94±2.70 (2–12) months, were identified. These children were divided into two groups: group 1 with target refraction (n=18, 21 eyes) and group 2 with pseudophakic myopia (n=14,28 eyes). All patients were examined with the Nidek RS-3000 Advance two optical coherence tomography.

RESULTS: A significant reduction was found in the morphometric parameters in group 2 relative to that in group 1: foveal thickness (253.11±27.84 and 266.42±21.52 μm), average inner macula thickness (307.64±30.9 and 330.14±28.29 μm) and average outer macula thickness (281.17±22.51 and 298.78±28.23 μm), central choroidal thickness (221.87±79.04 and 311.94±68.38 μm), macular volume (7.99±0.71 and 8.76±0.49 mm3), and foveal volume (0.19±0.02 и 0,21±0.02 mm3). This can be due to axial elongation (24.72±2.18 and 21.28±1.55 mm). The correlation between the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and macular volume was moderate in pseudophakic children (r=0.418; p <0.01).

CONCLUSION: The data indicate an impairment of the macular zone formation in children with pseudophakic myopia which to a certain extent can explain the decrease in functional prognosis.

Russian Pediatric Ophthalmology. 2022;17(4):5-15
pages 5-15 views
Anatomical and functional results of surgical treatment of familial exudative vitreoretinopathy in children
Denisova E.V., Geraskina E.А., Katargina L.А., Osipova N.A.
Abstract

Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a rare hereditary disease characterized by abnormal angiogenesis, presence of avascular zones on the periphery of the retina, and clinical manifestations ranging from an asymptomatic course to total retinal detachment. Surgical interventions are performed to eliminate vitreoretinal traction, epiretinal membranes, and retinal detachment. Studies of the surgical treatment outcomes of patients with FEVR are limited and findings are ambiguous

AIM: To analyze surgical treatment outcomes of different stages of FEVR in childhood.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: From January 2012 to October 2021 at the Helmholtz National Medical Research Center of Eye Diseases, surgical treatment was performed in 35 eyes of 33 patients aged 11 months–15 years (average, 7 years). The effectiveness of treatment was evaluated 1–2 months after the treatment, and patients were examined every 3–6 months for 1–5 years (average 2 years).

RESULTS: Аfter the primary surgery, a decrease in retinal traction in the posterior pole and periphery was achieved in all cases. Complete and incomplete reattachment was achieved in 30% and 70% of the eyes at stage 3 and in 12.5% and 87.5% of the eyes at stage 4, respectively. The long-term effectiveness rates of the intervention in stages 2, 3 (including complete and incomplete reattachment), and 4 were 100%, 87.5%, and 73.3%, respectively.

Increases in the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were observed in 83%, 50%, and 28.6% of the eyes in stages 2, 3, and 4, respectively. In other cases, successful surgical treatment allowed the preservation of visual functions. During the follow-up, visual acuity of 0.1 or more was maintained in 100%, 85.7%, and 36% of the eyes at stages 2, 3, and 4 of FEVR, respectively.

CONCLUSION: Аnatomical and functional results of surgical treatment of FEVR correlate with the disease stage: the efficiency is greater in stage 2, and it was organ-preserving surgery in stage 5. To increase the effectiveness of treatment, early diagnosis of FEVR, laser coagulation of avascular zones, and active vessels are necessary, which makes it possible to stop the progression of the early stages of FEVR in 70%–100% of cases and enables regular monitoring of patients for the timely detection of indications for additional laser coagulation or surgical intervention.

Russian Pediatric Ophthalmology. 2022;17(4):17-26
pages 17-26 views
State of microcirculation in the retina and choroid according to optical coherence tomography with angiography data in children with posterior and panuveitis
Novikova O.V., Denisova E.V.
Abstract

AIM: Retinal and choroidal microvascular changes analysis in children with posterior and panuveitis using optical coherence tomography with angiography (OCTA) and determination of the possibility of using this method in activity assessment and disease monitoring.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: 24 children with uveitis were examined. The age of children was from 8 to 18 years old (38 affected eyes). All included patients were divided into two groups: with posterior uveitis (27 eyes) and with panuveitis (11 eyes). In each of the groups, subgroups with active and inactive uveitis were identified. In addition to the standard examination OCTA was performed. Foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area, perfusion density in the superficial and deep vascular plexuses of the retina (SVRP, DVRP) and also in the layers of choriocapillaries and large and medium vessels of the choroid were studied. The control group consisted of 10 paired healthy eyes.

RESULTS: Аll eyes with posterior and panuveitis were characterized by the irreversible decrease in perfusion density in DVRP. In eyes with active chorioretinitis was also detected the reversible decrease in perfusion density in SVRP, layers of choriocapillaries and large and medium vessels of the choroid. The formation of choroidal neovascular membranes (CNM) in patients with panuveitis with choroiditis was accompanied by the decrease in perfusion density at all levels studied. In eyes with chorioretinitis and CNM the decrease in perfusion density was detected in DVRP and the area of FAZ increased.

CONCLUSION: The features of microcirculation in the chorioretinal complex identified using OCTA in children with posterior and panuveitis can improve the diagnosis and monitoring of these diseases.

Russian Pediatric Ophthalmology. 2022;17(4):27-34
pages 27-34 views
Induced bifocal soft contact lenses with the addition of 4.0 D myopic defocus in the near periphery of the retina and its effect on the progression of myopia
Tarutta E.P., Tarasova N.A., Milash S.V., Kushnarevich N.Y., Larina T.Y.
Abstract

AIM: To evaluate the dynamics of axial and peripheral refraction in the near periphery of the retina in eyes with myopia against the background of wearing bifocal soft contact lens (BSCL) with the addition of 4 D.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-three patients (84 eyes) with myopia from −0.5 to −6.5 D (average −3.53±0.19 D) aged 7–15 (average 11.3±0.27) years were examined before and 6 months after the start of wearing Prima BIO Bifocal BSCL (Okey Vision Retail, Russia). Visual acuity without correction, with optimal correction, and in BSCL, cycloplegic refraction, eye length, keratotopography, and peripheral defocus (PD) at 5°, 10°, and 15° to the nose and temple from the center of the fovea with and without lenses were assessed.

RESULTS: After 6 months of wearing BSCL, the subjective refraction increased by 0.04 D, cycloplegic refraction by 0.18 D, and average BSCL strength by 0.01 D. The axial length increased by 0.03 mm (p >0.05). The initial PD without lenses was hypermetropic in all zones, and in BSCL, it was myopic in zones T5°, T10°, T15°, and N15° and hypermetropic in zones N5° and N10°. After 6 months of PD without correction, hypermetropic defocus tended to decrease in zones N10° and N15° and myopic defocus appeared in N5° (p >0.05); with lenses, myopic defocus increased in zones T5°, T10°, T15°, and N15°, and in N5° and N10°, it did not change and remained hypermetropic.

CONCLUSION: BSCLs provide total correction of myopia and high distant and near visual acuity in children, induce myopic defocus in the near periphery, and contribute to the inhibition of the progression of myopia in the traced period.

Russian Pediatric Ophthalmology. 2022;17(4):35-41
pages 35-41 views

Case reports

Clinical case of late complication of congenital dacryocystitis
Filatova I.A., Shemetov S.A., Kondratieva Y.P.
Abstract

A clinical case is presented in a 62-year-old patient. Based on anamnesis, the patient had congenital dacryocystitis, for which repeated probing was performed at the age of 2–4 years. This treatment did not have a positive effect. Irregular conservative treatment and prolonged self-message of the lacrimal sac area resulted in complications: a significantly enlarged lacrimal sac, difficulty in moving the eyeball, double vision, and pronounced discomfort. Objectively, the patient had a tense moderately painful formation in the area of the inner corner of the eye slit, which displaced and deformed the lower eyelid. The right eye was deflected outward to 7°–8° Girshberg, its mobility was significantly limited in the inner and lower-inner part and slightly limited in the lower part. On computed tomography, the lacrimal sac significantly shifted into the orbit, the posterior part of the lacrimal sac was located behind the equator of the eyeball, and the size of the lacrimal sac was 1.5 times that of the eye. The enlarged lacrimal sac (dacryocele) induced the deviation of the eyeball outward with the appearance of diplopia. The lacrimal sac was removed by radio wave surgery: after the skin incision and separation of the fibers of the circular muscle, the lacrimal sac was opened, and 6.5 mL of liquid contents were evacuated from it. The walls of the bag were clamped, and delicately with the tip of the radio wave device, the lacrimal sac was completely isolated from the surrounding tissues. The wound was sutured in layers. After the operation, the patient received standard anti-inflammatory treatment. The postoperative course proceeded without complications, and all the symptoms (diplopia, eyeball deviation, impaired mobility, and discomfort) were resolved from the first days after the operation.

Russian Pediatric Ophthalmology. 2022;17(4):43-47
pages 43-47 views

Review

Antenatal risk factors for retinopathy of premature
Makogon S.I., Gorbacheva N.V., Khlopkova Y.S.
Abstract

This literature review presents the antenatal risk factors for the development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Despite advances in antenatal and neonatal therapeutic interventions, screening, and follow-up, ROP remains a potentially vision-threatening retinopathy that requires careful monitoring and timely intervention to prevent the progression of adverse visual impairment or blindness. ROP is a multifactorial disease. The main risk factors are low gestational age and low birth weight. Recent experimental and clinical data support the hypothesis that multiple antenatal factors are involved in the etiology and progression of ROP. These factors include the age of the mother, maternal diseases, pregnancy-associated maternal pathologies, use of drugs to correct these conditions, and inflammatory process. Their roles are ambiguous and often contradictory. The physiology of the mother and placenta can significantly influence the risk of ROP development in preterm infants. The placenta connects the mother’s body and the fetus, and it functions in the exchange of nutrients and oxygen between the mother and the fetus. Therefore, any pathological changes in the mother’s body entail changes in the placenta, which this directly affects the fetus. A sudden loss of placental support is detrimental to the development of infants in the immediate postnatal period. Thus, these factors should be taken into account when assessing the risk of ROP development to predict and prevent poor vision in children.

Russian Pediatric Ophthalmology. 2022;17(4):49-59
pages 49-59 views


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