Russian Pediatric Ophthalmology

Peer-review quarterly academic medical journal. 





The journal founded in 2006 is intended for ophtalmologists, healthcare professionals, drug developers and regulators, researchers of scientific, medical and educational organizations

The aim of the journal is to provide pediatric ophthalmologists with data on pediatric ophthalmology issues, to enable exchange of experience in diagnosing and treating ocular diseases in children, to facilitate discussion of research results, and to improve pediatric eye care.

The reader will find on the pages of the journal reviews, lectures and original articles that have priority and deserve to be published in the professional medical journal.

APC, Publication & Distribution

  • Quarterly issues (4 times a year)
  • Continuoulsly publications online (Online First)
  • Hybrid Access (Open Access articles published with CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 License)
  • articles in English & Russian


Articles types

  • reviews
  • systematic reviews and metaanalyses
  • original research articles
  • clinical case reports and series
  • letters to the editor
  • short communications
  • clinial practice guidelines


  • Russian Science Citation Index (
  • CrossRef
  • Google Scholar
  • Ulrich’s International Periodicals Directory
  • WorldCat


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Vol 18, No 1 (2023)

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Original study article

Clinical features of internal fistula obliteration after trabeculectomy in congenital glaucoma and the possibility of laser treatment
Arestova N.N., Panova A.Y., Kireeva S.A.

AIM: This study aimed to evaluate the clinical features of internal fistula obliteration after trabeculectomy (TE) in children with congenital glaucoma and the possibility of laser treatment.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 73 eyes of 56 children with congenital glaucoma who underwent TE between 3 months and 16 years. Yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) laser refistulization was performed postoperatively because gonioscopy results revealed a complete or partial block of the internal fistula. In addition, a patented technique was utilized that combines the use of defocused and focused YAG laser radiation.

RESULTS: The internal fistula was more often blocked by the iris root. YAG laser refistulization eliminated the block in 97.3% of cases, and in two cases, planar splices that had existed for >6 months could not be dissected. Laser removal of the internal fistula block in 97.3% of cases led to a normalization of the intraocular pressure (IOP) immediately after surgery and in 80.7% of cases in the subsequent year. Early refistulization (up to 3 months after TE) reduced the risk of IOP decompensation by 2.6 times by the annual follow-up.

CONCLUSION: In children with congenital glaucoma, internal fistula obliteration (both complete and partial) by the iris root, iridotrabecular or iridocorneal contact, fusion, or pigment may occur at the earliest stages after TE, which is an indication of laser refistulization. When the internal fistula is overgrown after TE in children with congenital glaucoma, YAG laser refistulization allows restoring the lumen of the internal fistula in 97.3% of cases. Therefore, for timely detection and elimination of the blockade, gonioscopic monitoring of the internal fistula is necessary both at the earliest possible time and in the long term after TE.

Russian Pediatric Ophthalmology. 2023;18(1):5-12
pages 5-12 views
Value of optical coherence tomography angiography for the assessment of visual functions in children with retinopathy of prematurity
Katargina L.A., Kogoleva L.V., Osipova N.A., Kokoeva N.S.

AIM: To compare and assess morphometric, structural, and microvascular parameters of the macular zone in children with cicatricial ROP grades I–III with different visual acuity from those in healthy peers.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighteen children (36 eyes) aged 8–18 years with cicatricial ROP grades I–III were examined. Ten peers (20 eyes) made up the control group. All children, in addition to the standard ophthalmological examination, underwent optical coherence tomography and optical coherence tomography with angiography (OCTA). The diagnosis was carried out on a tomograph RS-3000 Advance 2 (Nidek (Japan)). In the resulting 3×3 mm scans with a center in the fovea, the vascular and perfusion density of the superficial retinal capillary plexus (SCP), deep retinal capillary plexus (DSP), and the foveolar avascular zone, were measured, the thickness of the retina in the fovea was evaluated, and the structure of the neuroepithelium in the macula was assessed.

RESULTS: In children born before 27 weeks, the central retinal thickness was higher than that in more “mature” children (231.8±18.2 and 208.2±15.2 mµ, respectively), and the relationship of this parameter with visual acuity was not explored. The vascular density of SCP in children with ROP and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) up to 0.4 and more than 0.4 were 1.46 mm-1 and 1.35 mm-1, respectively; and in the control group, it was 1.89 mm-1.

The perfusion densities of the SCP in these groups were 9.2%, 10.03%, and 13.3%, respectively. The vascular densities of the Deep capillary plexus (DCP) in children with ROP with BCVA up to 0.4 and more than 0.4 were 2.8 mm-1 and 3.0 mm-1, respectively; in the control group, it was 3.2 mm-1, and the perfusion density of the deep capillary plexus (DCP) in indicated groups were 25.7%, 30.9%, and 31.7%, respectively.

CONCLUSION: The analysis of the architectonics of the retinal vascular bed in children with ROP using OCTA makes it possible to assess the relationship between microcirculation disorders in the central zone of the retina and visual acuity, which is of great scientific and practical importance.

Russian Pediatric Ophthalmology. 2023;18(1):13-20
pages 13-20 views
Peripheral spatial contrast sensitivity of the eyes
Tarutta E.P., Kondratova S.E., Milash S.V., Tarasova N.A.

AIM: To develop a method for evaluating peripheral spatial contrast sensitivity and to use it in comparative studies of peripheral spatial contrast sensitivity in children with myopia under correction conditions with glasses with a highly aspherical lenslet (HAL) and single vision lenses (SVL).

MATERIAL AND METHODS: A method for evaluating peripheral spatial contrast sensitivity was developed, in which visual control was carried out with the patient’s gaze fixed in the forward direction using a remote binocular autorefractometer, and the test image was sent to the selected area of the retina periphery. The SVL values were evaluated in three ranges of spatial frequencies, namely, low (0.5–2.0 cycle/deg), medium (4.0 to 8.0 cycle/deg), and high (11.31–16.0 cycle/deg). Peripheral spatial contrast sensitivity was examined descriptively in 20 patients with low and moderate myopia. The age of the patients ranged from 8 to 13 (average, 11.4±1.5) years, and the degree of myopia ranged from −1.0 to −3.75 (average, −2.66±1.5 D). The patients were examined in glasses with HAL and in a trial frame with SVL correction.

RESULTS. In HAL, which induces volumetric myopic defocus on the periphery of the retina, the peripheral spatial contrast sensitivity was lower than that in the SVL. This decrease was most pronounced at medium and high spatial frequencies, where it reached 30–50%. The revealed differences in the peripheral spatial contrast sensitivity at high frequencies (8; 11.31 and 16 cycles/deg) were statistically significant: 7.5 and 10.8 at the frequency of 8 cycles/deg, 5.8 and 9.05 at the frequency of 11.31 cycles/deg, and 4.4 and 9.2 at the frequency of 16 cycles/deg, respectively.

CONCLUSION: The peripheral spatial contrast sensitivity in glasses with rings of HAL, compared with the peripheral spatial contrast sensitivity in SVL, is significantly reduced at high spatial frequencies.

Russian Pediatric Ophthalmology. 2023;18(1):21-27
pages 21-27 views
Morphological structure of the levator muscle in congenital and acquired ptosis of the upper eyelid
Filatova I.A., Izmailova N.S., Kondratieva J.P., Shemetov S.A., Trefilova M.S.

AIM: To examine the relationship between the morphological structure of the levator in congenital and acquired ptosis based on dynamometric data and histological research.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Dynamometric and histological examination of the morphological structure of the levator in congenital and acquired ptosis of the upper eyelid was conducted. Twenty-seven fragments obtained during the operation to eliminate blepharoptosis were studied.

RESULTS: With congenital ptosis of the upper eyelid, the average values of SS and fatigue were 1.06±0.39 g and 1.88±0.89 g, respectively; with acquired ptosis, the average values of SS and fatigue were 1.47±0.66 g and 2.31±0.91 g, respectively (p <0.05). All the biopsies were divided into two groups. Group 1 included biopsies of 16 patients with congenital ptosis (n=16), and group 2 included 11 levator fragments with acquired ptosis. Macroscopic examination revealed greater levator fragment lengths in the acquired ptosis group than in the congenital ptosis group: 2.33±1.32 mm and 1.22±0.34 mm, respectively (p ≤0.05). The levator fragments differed in color and had denser elastic consistency in the acquired ptosis group than in the congenital ptosis group. The histological picture in congenital ptosis (n=11) was an overgrowth of the fibrous–adipose tissue, and five biopsies showed an overgrowth of fibrous tissue with signs of protein dystrophy. In levator biopsies with acquired ptosis, seven biopsies with aponeurotic ptosis of the upper eyelid were characterized by the overgrowth of fibrous–adipose tissue. The first biopsy (myasthenic ptosis of the upper eyelid) demonstrated the predominance of adipose tissue, with scattered bundles of striated muscle fibers and areas of connective tissue with bundles of smooth muscle fibers. In the remaining three biopsies, fragments of adipose tissue with signs of edema and hyperplasia were identified.

CONCLUSION: Congenital ptosis is characterized by relatively low strength and rapid fatigue of the upper eyelid levator, higher occurrence of fibrous–adipose tissue, and fibrous tissue proliferation. Acquired ptosis is characterized by average strength and fatigue. In the acquired ptosis group, histological data indicate an equal ratio of fibrous–adipose and adipose tissue growth. These results can be used in the diagnosis of various forms of ptosis and selection of an effective method for surgical correction for this pathology.

Russian Pediatric Ophthalmology. 2023;18(1):29-39
pages 29-39 views
Efficiency of combined therapy of cystoid macular edema in children with inflammatory and noninflammatory retinal diseases
Shefer K.К., Shilov A.I., Pavlova Y.A.

AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness of combined anti-inflammatory and local dehydration therapy for CME in children with retinitis pigmentosa or uveitis of different etiologies.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included two groups of children with cystic macular edema. In Group 1 CME developed against the background of retinitis pigmentosa, in group 2 against the background of uveitis. All children underwent subtenon injection of a prolonged steroid and instillations of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors 4 times a day. The results were evaluated after 1 month.

RESULTS: As a part of the ongoing therapy, all children received subtenon injections of long-acting corticosteroids and 4-times/day instillation of a carboanhydrase inhibitor for 1 month. Based on the present results, a tendency to increase the BCVA by 1–2 lines was noted in children with CME because of retinitis pigmentosa and in those with CME with uveitis. When assessing the thickness of the macular zone using optical coherence tomography, a significant difference was recorded relative to children with CME because the uveal process responded significantly better to the therapy. Thus, a significantly higher rate of resorption was demonstrated in macular edema.

CONCLUSION: The present results emphasize the importance of understanding the etiology of CME. The treatment of such children should be strictly pathogenetically directed. The combination of topical anti-inflammatory and dehydration therapy is the preferred choice of treatment for children with CME due to uveitis. This approach helps reduce cytokine inflammatory reactions, the activity of the inflammatory process, and the amount of fluid in the retina. In retinitis pigmentosa, the effect of photoreceptor decay products is weakly affected by anti-inflammatory therapy, and the dehydration therapy is short-term. Therefore, it is worthwhile to search for other ways to normalize the profile of the macular zone.

Russian Pediatric Ophthalmology. 2023;18(1):41-46
pages 41-46 views

Technical report

Ophthalmological follow-up of premature children in St. Petersburg
Saidasheva E.I., Malinovskaya N.A.

Premature newborns have a high risk of developing visual impairments. This study presents the experience of an organization dispensary ophthalmological observation as a stage of providing medical care to premature children in St. Petersburg and the prospects for its development.

AIM: To analyze the effectiveness of the organizational model of dispensary ophthalmological observation of premature children in St. Petersburg for 2020–2022.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Reporting forms of the activities of interdistrict ophthalmological cabinet and reporting forms of medical and social expertise of Rosstat No. 7D were used.

RESULTS: In 2010, a system of specialized ophthalmological care for premature infants at the hospital stage was organized in St. Petersburg (screening and laser treatment of active ROP using telemedicine technologies; surgical treatment of late disease stages). In 2018, for the subsequent dispensary observation of premature children aged up to 3 years, six inter-district ophthalmological cabinets of follow-up were organized. A developed routing scheme for children at risk and with active and cicatricial ROP in St. Petersburg and preliminary results of ROP incidence were presented.

CONCLUSION: The activities of specialized inter-district follow-up cabinets primarily ensure continuity between hospital and outpatient services in the dynamic monitoring of children at risk and children with active ROP. In addition, professional competencies allow ophthalmologists to avoid mistakes in diagnosing the stage, monitoring the ROP course, and promptly referring patients for emergency treatment (laser or anti-VEGF therapy).

Russian Pediatric Ophthalmology. 2023;18(1):47-52
pages 47-52 views

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